NUTRIGENETICS

Nutrigenetics is a science that studies the effect of genetic variations on the interaction between diet and health

Nutrigenetics is the retrospective analysis of genetic variations among individuals with respect to the interaction between diet and disease. It is an applied science that studies how the genetic makeup of an individual affects the response to diet and the susceptibility to diet-related diseases.

This necessitates the identification of gene variants associated with differential responses to nutrients and with higher susceptibility to diet-related diseases. The ultimate goal of nutrigenetics is to provide nutritional recommendations for individuals in what is known as personalized or individualized nutrition.

Due to evolutionary processes, humans differ in their DNA, more precisely in so-called SNPs (short for “single nucleotide polymorphism”). Among others, SNPs influence the way individuals absorb and process food components. Physiological activity in the human organism that concerns the consumption or transportation of nutrients is also connected with the reciprocation of various genetic variants. This assumption forms the basis for nutrigenetic sciences.Moreover, different nutrigenetic processes in the human body can imply an advantage in terms of natural selection. Thus, for example, evolution urged people to digest lactose from cow milk.

Another example, some variants of the APOA5 gene make their carriers susceptible to high blood triglycerides, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Low calorie and omega-3 rich diets can help prevent disease development. About 30% of Asians and Hispanics carry APOA5 risk variants.

A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, pronounced snip) is a DNA sequence variation occurring when a single nucleotide adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), or guanine (G]) in the genome (or other shared sequence) differs between members of a species or paired chromosomes in an individual.

For example, two sequenced DNA fragments from different individuals, AAGCCTA to AAGCTTA, contain a difference in a single nucleotide. 

Within a population, SNPs can be assigned a minor allele frequency — the lowest allele frequency at a locus that is observed in a particular population. This is simply the lesser of the two allele frequencies for single-nucleotide polymorphisms. There are variations between human populations, so a SNP allele that is common in one geographical or ethnic group may be much rarer in another.

Variations in the DNA sequences of humans can affect how humans develop diseases and respond to pathogens, chemicals, medication, vaccines, and other agents.

SNPs are also thought to be key enablers in realizing the concept of personalized medicine. However, their greatest importance in biomedical research is for comparing regions of the genome between cohorts (such as matched cohorts with and without a disease).

Moreover, the genetic profile allows to identify the most appropriate type of physical activity for each individual.

In the long run, nutrigenetics should allow nutritionists and physicians to individualize health and diet recommendations. Consequently, preventive medicine, diagnostics and therapies could be optimized.

Nutrigenomics (not to be confused with Nutrigenetics)is a branch of nutritional genomics and is the study of the effects of foods and food constituents on gene expression. This means that nutrigenomics is research focusing on identifying and understanding molecular-level interaction between nutrients and other dietary bioactives with the genome.

Nutrigenomics has also been described by the influence of genetic variation on nutrition, by correlating gene expression or SNPs with a nutrient's absorption, metabolism, elimination or biological effects. By doing so, nutrigenomics aims to develop rational means to optimise nutrition with respect to the subject's genotype.

 

Our genes interact with our environment - they can be influenced and regulate it at the same time - there is a bilateral relationship GENE-ENVIRONMENT. 

 The Nutrigenetics tests of MedinVita can only be contracted through selected doctor partners and are not sold directly to the consumers. If you are a private consumer and would like to do the test, please send us an email (info@medinvita.ch) and we will refer you to our health professional in your area. If you are a doctor or a health professional, become our partner and offer your customers the progressive possibilities of genetic diagnostics, which include preventing diseases, effectively losing weight and overall, living a healthier life.

 

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